To minimise wafer failure during the manufacture of microchips with transistors of 10 nanometers or less, the use of ultrapure water is essential.
The market for semiconductors is relatively new. It emerged in the 1980s, has boomed since 1990, but is nevertheless highly cyclical in nature. The size of high-end UPW systems has increased significantly, while reclaiming water is now standard practice. Waste water and reclaim systems have also increased in size, partly in response to stricter regulations for the disposal of effluents.
Kolk Water Consultancy has years of international experience with these types of water treatment projects (gained in Southeast Asia, Taiwan and Europe).